Non-permanent residents, such as international students, foreign workers, and asylum seekers, make up a growing portion of Canada’s population. In 2021, almost 1 million non-permanent residents (NPRs) were counted in the census, representing 2.5% of Canada’s population. Most NPRs had a work permit, comprising 40.1% of NPRs. An additional 14.2% of NPRs held a study permit in addition to their work permit, while 21.9% only had a study permit. Those seeking refugee protection accounted for 15.1% of NPRs; the remaining 8.7% were other NPR types, including temporary resident permit holders, family members of NPRs, and holders of parent and grandparent super visas.