Canadian permanent residents have all the benefits and obligations outlined below.
Where You Can live
A permanent resident and their accompanying dependants can live, work and study in any one of the ten provinces or three territories within Canada.
Permanent residents have the right to free education up to the age of 18 in the Canadian public school system.
When it comes to university, tuition fees are dramatically reduced for permanent residents when compared to international student rates. For example, the McGill University tuition fees for 2019-2020 are $2,544 for a Quebec resident, $7,940 for other Canadians and $18,110-$48,747 for international students, depending on the program of study.
Permanent residents qualify for provincial universal health care coverage.
While Medicare is governed by federal legislation, each province and territory administers its own public health plan, and some impose a Medicare waiting period on new residents. Where a waiting period applies the new resident is responsible to pay the entire cost of medical services, including hospital fees, even in an emergency.
The provinces that require a waiting period and those that do not are subject to change.
Currently, there are six provinces that offer “immediate” Medicare coverage for newly landed permanent residents. Moving from West to East, those include Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland & Labrador. In those jurisdictions, after registering for a health card with the qualifying documentation, the effective date of coverage is made retroactive to the date the new resident arrived to establish residency in the province or territory.
That leaves four provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec) and all territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) where a Medicare waiting period is imposed on newly arrived residents. In these jurisdictions even, new residents who are Canadian citizens face the waiting period.
The waiting period can be up to three months from the date one physically arrives in the province or territory with the requisite immigration status (with the permanent resident document).
You must pay taxes at federal, provincial and municipal levels. Income tax is imposed on the basis of residency rather than citizenship. After becoming a permanent resident an individual would be required to pay Canadian taxes on worldwide income. The assets of a newly arriving immigrant are not taxed under Canadian law.
Federal Tax Rates For 2019
- 15% on the first $47,630 of taxable income, and
- 20.5% on the portion of taxable income over 47,630 up to $95,259 and
- 26% on the portion of taxable income over $95,259 up to $147,667 and
- 29% on the portion of taxable income over $147,667 up to $210,371 and
- 33% of taxable income over $210,371.
Provincial Tax Rates For 2019
|Alberta10% on the first $131,200|
12% on the next $131,200-$157,464
13% on the next $157,464-$209,252
14% on the next $209,252-$314,928
15% on the amount over $314,928
|British Columbia5.06% on the first $40,707 of taxable income|
7.7% on the next $40,707-$81,416
10.5% on the next $81,416-$93,476
12.29% on the next $93,476-$113,503
14.7% on the next $113,503-$153,900
16.8% on the amount over $153,900
|Manitoba10.8% on the first $32,670 of taxable income|
12.75% on the next $32,670-$70,610
17.4% on the amount over $70,610
|New Brunswick9.68% on the first $42,592 of taxable income|
14.82% on the next $42,592-$85,184
16.52% on the next $85,184-$138,491
17.84% on the next $138,491-$157,718
20.3% on the amount over $157,718
|Newfoundland and Labrador8.7% on the first $37,579 of taxable income|
14.5% on the next $37,579-$75,181
15.8% on the next $75,181-$134,224
17.3% on the next $134,224-$187,913
18.3% on the amount over $187,913
|Nova Scotia8.79% on the first $29,590 of taxable income|
14.95% on the next $29,590-$59,180
16.67% on the next $59,180-$93,000
17.5% on the next $93,000-$150,000
21% on the amount over $150,000
|Northwest Territories5.9% on the first $43,137 of taxable income|
8.6% on the next $43,137-$86,277
12.2% on the next $86,277-$140,267
14.05% on the amount over $140,267
|Nunavut4% on the first $45,414 of taxable income|
7% on the next $45,414-$90,829
9% on the next $90,889-$147,667
11.5% on the amount over $147,667
|Ontario5.05% on the first $43,906 of taxable income|
9.15% on the next $43,906-$87,813
11.16% on the next $87,813-$150,000
12.16% on the next $150,000-$220,000
13.16 % on the amount over $220,000
|Prince Edward Island9.8% on the first $31,984 of taxable income|
13.8% on the next $31,985
16.7% on the amount over $63,969
25.75% More than $106,555
|Saskatchewan11% on the first $45,225 of taxable income,|
12.75% on $45,225-$129,214
17.4% on the amount over $129,214
|Yukon6.4% on the first $47,630 of taxable income|
9% on the next $47,630-$95,259
10.9% on the next $95,259-$147,667
12.8% on the next $147,667-$500,000
15% on the amount over $500,000
Becoming a Canadian Citizen
Under current law, to qualify for citizenship through naturalization, candidates must have three years of qualifying permanent resident status during the preceding five years.
Applicants must also:
- Meet the Citizenship Language Requirement, if between the ages of 18 and 54;
- Not be under a removal order;
- Not have a criminal prohibition;
- Pay processing fees.